Intracellular receptor and steroid hormone

The pharmacological modulation of renoprotective factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in the proximal tubule has therapeutic interest. In human proximal tubular HK-2 cells, treatment with all-trans retinoic acid or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) triggers the production of VEGF-A. The pathway involves an initial increase in intracellular PGE2, followed by activation of EP receptors (PGE2 receptors, most likely an intracellular subset) and increase in retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) expression. RARβ then up-regulates transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which increases the transcription and production of VEGF-A. Here we studied the role in this pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation by EP receptors. We found that EGFR inhibitor AG1478 prevented the increase in VEGF-A production induced by PGE2- and all-trans retinoic acid. This effect was due to the inhibition of the transcriptional up-regulation of RARβ, which resulted in loss of the RARβ-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of HIF-1α. PGE2 and all-trans retinoic acid also increased EGFR phosphorylation and this effect was sensitive to antagonists of EP receptors. The role of intracellular PGE2 was indicated by two facts; i) PGE2-induced EGFR phosphorylation was substantially prevented by inhibitor of prostaglandin uptake transporter bromocresol green and ii) all-trans retinoic acid treatment, which enhanced intracellular but not extracellular PGE2, had lower effect on EGFR phosphorylation upon pre-treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac. Thus, EGFR transactivation by intracellular PGE2-activated EP receptors results in the sequential activation of RARβ and HIF-1α leading to increased production of VEGF-A and it may be a target for the therapeutic modulation of HIF-1α/VEGF-A.

A possible taste receptor for fat, CD36 , has been identified. [16] CD36 has been localized to the circumvallate and foliate papillae , which are present in taste buds , [17] and research has shown that the CD36 receptor binds long chain fatty acids . [18] Differences in the amount of CD36 expression in human subjects was associated with their ability to taste fats, [19] creating a case for the receptor's relationship to fat tasting. Further research into the CD36 receptor could be useful in determining the existence of a true fat-tasting receptor.

Intracellular receptors are receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane . Classic hormones that use intracellular receptors include thyroid and steroid hormones. Examples are the class of nuclear receptors located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm and the IP 3 receptor located on the endoplasmic reticulum . The ligands that bind to them are usually intracellular second messengers like inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and extracellular lipophilic hormones like steroid hormones . Some intracrine peptide hormones also have intracellular receptors.

The intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) is exposed at the apical surface to a high concentration of foreign antigen and bacterial products capable of triggering inflammatory responses. Complex intracellular pathways of antigen trafficking and the polarized expression of immunologically active receptors provide additional means to regulate the inflammatory pathways in these cells. In the case of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II heterodimers, surface expression is highly restricted to the basolateral surface, and this also appears to be the case for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) on polarized T84 human colon cancer cells. Processing of soluble antigen via HLA class II in IEC can occur following internalization from the apical surface but is highly inefficient. In addition, certain bacteria can facilitate the transport of flagellin (the ligand for TLR5) across an intact epithelium. Disruption of the tight junctions between IECs, allowing direct access of antigen and flagellin to the basolateral surface of the cell, dramatically affects the functional outcome HLA class II and TLR5 pathways.

Intracellular receptor and steroid hormone

intracellular receptor and steroid hormone

The intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) is exposed at the apical surface to a high concentration of foreign antigen and bacterial products capable of triggering inflammatory responses. Complex intracellular pathways of antigen trafficking and the polarized expression of immunologically active receptors provide additional means to regulate the inflammatory pathways in these cells. In the case of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II heterodimers, surface expression is highly restricted to the basolateral surface, and this also appears to be the case for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) on polarized T84 human colon cancer cells. Processing of soluble antigen via HLA class II in IEC can occur following internalization from the apical surface but is highly inefficient. In addition, certain bacteria can facilitate the transport of flagellin (the ligand for TLR5) across an intact epithelium. Disruption of the tight junctions between IECs, allowing direct access of antigen and flagellin to the basolateral surface of the cell, dramatically affects the functional outcome HLA class II and TLR5 pathways.

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