Barbiturates are capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration, from excitation to mild sedation, hypnosis , and deep coma. Overdosage can produce death. In high enough therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia . Barbiturates depress the sensory cortex, decrease motor activity, alter cerebellar function, and produce drowsiness, sedation, and hypnosis. Barbiturate-induced sleep differs from physiologic sleep. Sleep laboratory studies have demonstrated that barbiturates reduce the amount of time spent in the rapid eye movement (REM) phase, or dreaming stage of sleep. Also, Stages III and IV sleep are decreased. Following abrupt cessation of regularly used barbiturates, patients may experience markedly increased dreaming, nightmares, and/or insomnia . Therefore, withdrawal of a single therapeutic dose over 5 or 6 days has been recommended to lessen the REM rebound and disturbed sleep that contribute to drug withdrawal syndrome (for example, decreasing the dose from 3 to 2 doses a day for 1 week).
Language prestige Positive value placed upon a particular language or features of a language. At the most general level, a language or language variety may be considered prestigious because it is spoken by those who are in power and because it is considered to be correct by prescriptivists . Depending on the social situation, however, it may be more prestigious to use features that are not prescriptively correct but that have prestige for a certain group, such as popular vocabulary terms used by a given group of teenagers. See language prejudice. Back to list