Most modern steroid enemas are foam based - as the likelihood of someone with colitis being able to retain a water based enema is quite low. These act topically applying the steroid directly to the colon - with only small amounts being absorbed into the bloodstream. This makes side effects less likely. The downside is that they can only reach the descending colon and rectum - so for those with extensive colitis oral steroids may be needed. A combination of Entocort and steroid enemas can provide topical treatment to the majority of the colon - again minimizing side effects. As the two main steroid enemas differ quite greatly I will cover them separately.
Looking at the list below can tell you whether or not something may increase your risk of cancer, but it is important to try to get an idea of how much it might increase your risk. It is also important to know what your risk is to begin with. Many factors can enter into this, including your age, gender, family history, and lifestyle factors (tobacco and alcohol use, weight, diet, physical activity level, etc.). As noted above, the type and extent of exposure to a substance may also play a role. You should consider the actual amount of increased risk when deciding if you should limit or avoid an exposure.