There have been several studies which have demonstrated the effects of steroid and steroid derivatives on the body ( Table 1 ) [ 1 , 13 , 14 ]. Bhasin et al. performed a prospective, placebo controlled study evaluating the effects of supraphysiologic levels testosterone enanthate (TE) on muscle mass over a 10-week period [ 15 ]. The authors concluded that patients with supraphysiologic levels of TE had a significantly greater increase in their lean muscle mass as well as a more significant increase in size of their legs and triceps, and a more significant increase in the weight they could bench press and squat compared to the control group. However, despite the benefits steroids provide in muscle mass and strength, multiple studies have demonstrated that there are innumerable side effects associated with these drugs including cardiovascular disease, testicular atrophy, sudden cardiac death, liver disease and mood alterations [ 16 - 19 ].
The Union Association survived for only one season (1884), as did the Players' League (1890), an attempt to return to the National Association structure of a league controlled by the players themselves. Both leagues are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. However, some researchers have disputed the major league status of the Union Association, pointing out that franchises came and went and contending that the St. Louis club, which was deliberately "stacked" by the league's president (who owned that club), was the only club that was anywhere close to major league caliber.